Category: Fast pyrolysis

Congratulation to Dr. The word is coined from the Greek-derived elements pyro "fire" and lysis "separating". The fragmentation of the biomass molecules generates chemical structures that, upon cooling, result in gaseous products, condensable liquids bio-oil and residual solids bio-carbon.

The gas consists mainly of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane, with lower amounts of carbon dioxide and ethane. The bio-oil is a dark, viscous mixture of many chemicals, including acids, aldehydes, ketons, furfural, anhydrosugars, phenolics, and water.

The bio-carbon consists of the mineral matter of the original biomass entrapped into a porous carbon structure. The slow pyrolysis process generates also lower yields of bio-oil and gaseous products. Depending on the pyrolysis process and on the biomass material utilized, both the yields as well as the physical and chemical characteristics of the products, and consequently, their performance, vary considerably.

Slow and Fast Pyrolysis: Impact on Bio-Carbon Characteristics Slow and fast pyrolysis generate solid bio-carbon products with different characteristics, even when produced from the same raw biomass material.

The most significant differences include a the evolution of the specific surface area resulting from the development of a porous structure during the pyrolysis process, and b the average pore size and pore size distribution i. Latest News Prof.

Berruti to give a talk in Heriot-Watt University Prof. Read moreFast pyrolysis has gained worldwide interest as a platform for production of drop-in biofuels, bio-based chemicals, and other bio-based products.

In the last few years, research has moved from essentially empirical investigations to more fundamental studies of chemical and physical mechanisms of pyrolysis. This book is organized into 12 chapters to cover recent advances in fast pyrolysis science and technology.

This chapter provides an overview of the principals, reactors and history of fast pyrolysis.

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It also outlines the topics covered in the following chapters, which include chemistry of thermal deconstruction, computational modeling, product characterization and utilization, catalytic pyrolysis, and economic analysis of fast pyrolysis systems. To contact an RTI author, request a report, or for additional information about publications by our experts, send us your request.

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fast pyrolysis

By continuing to use our website, you agree to the use of cookies. If you would like to know more about cookies and how to manage them please view our Privacy Policy. Learn More. Prospects for Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass. Wang, K. RSC Publishing. Abstract Fast pyrolysis has gained worldwide interest as a platform for production of drop-in biofuels, bio-based chemicals, and other bio-based products.

Publications Info To contact an RTI author, request a report, or for additional information about publications by our experts, send us your request. Recent Publications. Got it!Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere. The word is coined from the Greek -derived elements pyro "fire" and lysis "separating". Pyrolysis is most commonly used in the treatment of organic materials.

It is one of the processes involved in charring wood. Extreme pyrolysis, which leaves mostly carbon as the residue, is called carbonization. Pyrolysis is considered as the first step in the processes of gasification or combustion. The process is used heavily in the chemical industryfor example, to produce ethylenemany forms of carbonand other chemicals from petroleum, coal, and even wood, to produce coke from coal.

Aspirational applications of pyrolysis would convert biomass into syngas and biocharwaste plastics back into usable oil, or waste into safely disposable substances. Pyrolysis is one of various types of chemical degradation processes that occur at higher temperatures above the boiling point of water or other solvents.

It differs from other processes like combustion and hydrolysis in that it usually does not involve the addition of other reagents such as oxygen O 2in combustion or water in hydrolysis. Complete pyrolysis of organic matter usually leaves a solid residue that consists mostly of elemental carbon ; the process is then called carbonization. More specific cases of pyrolysis include:.

Prospects for Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass

Pyrolysis generally consists in heating the material above its decomposition temperaturebreaking chemical bonds in its molecules. The fragments usually become smaller molecules, but may combine to produce residues with larger molecular mass, even amorphous covalent solids.

ENCORE Advanced Pyrolysis: Waste to Electricity

In many settings, some amounts of oxygen, water, or other substances may be present, so that combustion, hydrolysis, or other chemical processes may occur besides pyrolysis proper. Sometimes those chemical are added intentionally, as in the burning of firewoodin the traditional manufacture of charcoaland in the steam cracking of crude oil.

Conversely, the starting material may be heated in a vacuum or in an inert atmosphere to avoid adverse chemical reactions. Pyrolysis in a vacuum also lowers the boiling point of the byproducts, improving their recovery. When organic matter is heated at increasing temperatures in open containers, the following processes generally occur, in successive or overlapping stages:. Pyrolysis has many applications in food preparation.

The food goes brown and changes flavour. The distinctive flavours are used in many dishes; for instance, caramelized onion is used in French onion soup. Putting a lid on the frying pan keeps the water in, and some of it re-condenses, keeping the temperature too cool to brown for longer.

Pyrolysis of food can also be undesirable, as in the charring of burnt food at temperatures too low for the oxidative combustion of carbon to produce flames and burn the food to ash. Carbon and carbon-rich materials have desirable properties but are nonvolatile, even at high temperatures. Consequently, pyrolysis is used to produce many kinds of carbon; these can be used for fuel, as reagents in steelmaking cokeand as structural materials.

Charcoal is a less smoky fuel than unpyrolized wood. In cities where people do not generally cook or heat with fires, this is not needed. In the midth century, "smokeless" legislation in Europe required cleaner-burning techniques, such as coke fuel [15] and smoke-burning incinerators [16] as an effective measure to reduce air pollution [15]. High temperature pyrolysis is used on an industrial scale to convert coal into coke. This is useful in metallurgywhere the higher temperatures are necessary for many processes, such as steelmaking.

Volatile by-products of this process are also often useful, including benzene and pyridine.

fast pyrolysis

The original vascular structure of the wood and the pores created by escaping gases combine to produce a light and porous material. By starting with a dense wood-like material, such as nutshells or peach stonesone obtains a form of charcoal with particularly fine pores and hence a much larger pore surface areacalled activated carbonwhich is used as an adsorbent for a wide range of chemical substances.

Biochar is the residue of incomplete organic pyrolysis, e.Introduction Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of biomass occurring in the absence of oxygen. It is the fundamental chemical reaction that is the precursor of both the combustion and gasification processes and occurs naturally in the first two seconds.

The products of biomass pyrolysis include biochar, bio-oil and gases including methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide.

Depending on the thermal environment and the final temperature, pyrolysis will yield mainly biochar at low temperatures, less than 0C, when the heating rate is quite slow, and mainly gases at high temperatures, greater than 0C, with rapid heating rates.

At an intermediate temperature and under relatively high heating rates, the main product is bio-oil.

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Pyrolysis can be performed at relatively small scale and at remote locations which enhance energy density of the biomass resource and reduce transport and handling costs. Heat transfer is a critical area in pyrolysis as the pyrolysis process is endothermic and sufficient heat transfer surface has to be provided to meet process heat needs.

Pyrolysis offers a flexible and attractive way of converting solid biomass into an easily stored and transported liquid, which can be successfully used for the production of heat, power and chemicals.

Feedstock for Pyrolysis A wide range of biomass feedstocks can be used in pyrolysis processes. At higher moisture contents, high levels of water are produced and at lower levels there is a risk that the process only produces dust instead of oil. High-moisture waste streams, such as sludge and meat processing wastes, require drying before subjecting to pyrolysis. The efficiency and nature of the pyrolysis process is dependent on the particle size of feedstocks.

Most of the pyrolysis technologies can only process small particles to a maximum of 2 mm keeping in view the need for rapid heat transfer through the particle.

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The demand for small particle size means that the feedstock has to be size-reduced before being used for pyrolysis. Figure 2 A glance at feedstock availability and energy products from biomass pyrolysis.

Pyrolysis processes can be categorized as slow pyrolysis or fast pyrolysis. Fast pyrolysis is currently the most widely used pyrolysis system. Slow pyrolysis takes several hours to complete and results in biochar as the main product. Fast pyrolysis processes include open-core fixed bed pyrolysis, ablative fast pyrolysis, cyclonic fast pyrolysis, and rotating core fast pyrolysis systems. The essential features of a fast pyrolysis process are:. Uses of Bio-Oil Bio-oil is a dark brown liquid and has a similar composition to biomass.

It has a much higher density than woody materials which reduces storage and transport costs. Bio-oil is not suitable for direct use in standard internal combustion engines. Alternatively, the oil can be upgraded to either a special engine fuel or through gasification processes to a syngas and then bio-diesel.

Bio-oil is particularly attractive for co-firing because it can be more readily handled and burned than solid fuel and is cheaper to transport and store.These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Find more information about Crossref citation counts. The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online.

Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric. Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. Fast pyrolysis oils from lignocellulosic biomass are promising second-generation biofuels.

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Herein, we report an experimental study on the upgrading of fast pyrolysis oil by catalytic hydrotreatment. The upgraded products were less acidic and contained less water than the original fast pyrolysis oil. Analyses of the products by 1 H NMR spectroscopy and 2D GC showed that the upgraded pyrolysis oil had lower contents of organic acids, aldehydes, ketones, and ethers than the feed, whereas the amounts of phenolics, aromatics, and alkanes were considerably higher.

View Author Information. Cite this: Ind. Article Views Altmetric. Citations Abstract Fast pyrolysis oils from lignocellulosic biomass are promising second-generation biofuels. Cited By.

fast pyrolysis

This article is cited by publications. Agblevor, H. Wang, S. Beis, K. Christian, A.These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily.

Find more information about Crossref citation counts. The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online. Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric. Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. Cite this: Energy Fuels44 Article Views Altmetric.

Citations PDF KB. Note: In lieu of an abstract, this is the article's first page. Cited By. This article is cited by publications.

Tedstone, Arthur A. Catalyzing the Hydrocracking of Low Density Polyethylene. DOI: Ulises R. Gracida-Alvarez, Lauren M. Keenan, Julio C. Sacramento-Rivero, and David R.

Shoucheng Du, Julia A. Valla, Richard S.

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Parnas, and George M. Sriraam R. Chandrasekaran, Bidhya Kunwar, Bryan R. Moser, Nandakishore Rajagopalan, and Brajendra K. Kinetics and Optimization.

Cecilia K.

Fast Pyrolysis Pilot Plants

Levendis and Joel B. Emissions from the Premixed Combustion of Gasified Polyethylene. Emissions from Premixed Combustion of Polystyrene.These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Find more information about Crossref citation counts.

The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online.

Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric. Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. Commercialization of biorefineries has encountered significant obstacles due to technical difficulties of handling solid biomass feedstocks, which are highly variable in physical properties and chemical compositions.

Understanding the principles of unit operations along the supply chain is key to the success of the biofuel industry. This study applies a dynamic life-cycle analysis DLCA methodology by developing quantitative relationships between the inputs and outputs for each unit operation based on scientific understanding of the causal effects. Using the DLCA, we assessed system sustainability of drop-in fuel production from fast pyrolysis of pine residues followed by hydro-processing.

Life-cycle greenhouse gas GHG emissions were calculated for 4, runs involving two key feedstock parameters: moisture content after field drying and particle size of the feed to pyrolyzer. However, although small particle size leads to overall higher fuel yield, it also requires a significant amount of energy for feedstock size reduction and fuel production.

The results highlight the tradeoffs between the energy demand for preprocessing and the conversion yields, which can be addressed with DLCA. More by Longwen Ou. More by Hao Cai.

Article Views 1. Altmetric. PDF KB. Abstract Commercialization of biorefineries has encountered significant obstacles due to technical difficulties of handling solid biomass feedstocks, which are highly variable in physical properties and chemical compositions.

Cited By. This article has not yet been cited by other publications.

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